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My Electric Vehicle

Humming Bird Wings beating about 53 times per second

2002 Toyota RAV4 EV

My first EV is a Toyota RAV4 EV (Electric Vehicle). She gets 80-105 miles of range per charge of her 24 NiMH batteries, depending on speed (80 on the highway, 105 at slower speeds). Her top speed is 78mph. We regularly take her to San Francisco and back without charging, though there are plenty of chargers available in the garages there.

Waidy's Rav4 is purchased, not leased. She is Waidy's car and she has driven over 100,000 pollution free miles so far.

[Silver Lining on Waidy's birthday]

The Rav4EV has 24 of the 12V 95Ah NiMH battery; total of 288V (24*12V) and 27.3kWh (24*12V*95Ah) battery pack system. The charger is 220 volts at 30 amp; 5kW inductive charging system (i.e. 6.6kW input power).

The amount of time to charge a fully discharged Rav4EV is 4.14 hours (27.3kWh/6.6kW)

The Rav4's battery specifications and energy data cat be found at Rav4EV Data

Sadly, Toyota stopped producing Rav4-EV in 2003. However, a limited quality (2600) of 2nd generation Rav4EV are available for purchase starting in Dec 2012.

[Waidy's Rav4 Charging]

2011 Nissan LEAF SL, Blue Moon

My second EV is a Nissan LEAF, named Blue Moon, in which we took delivery Feb. 4, 2011. This will be mostly driven by Candace and Darren; while I could drive my Rav4-EV 100% of the time.

The LEAF is powered by 192 Li-ion cells packaged in 48 compact lithium-ion battery modules totaling 24kWh that feed an 90kW AC motor, producing 107 horsepower and 280 Nm of torque. Each module contains four cells connected in series-parallel (i.e. two cells in parallel, and then the two sets of parallel cells connected in series.) The 2P-2S module is 7.5V norminal or 3.75V per cell. Therefore 48 modues x 2 x 66Ah x 3.75V = 23.76kWh. The 24kWh battery pack provides approximately 126 miles of driving range between full charges.

My 2011 Nissan LEAF is a SL trim with ECO package. Options also includes a Quick Charge Port.

I have several upgrades done to the LEAF: Improves Nissan supplied (Panasonic) Level 1 EVSE function by adding a versatile Level 1 and Level 2 auto-detect charging option which works on both 120V or 208/240V. Improves the HVAC system so it doesn't draw 4kW of energy when turning on fans or defrost. Added heated seats so to reduce use the LEAF's inefficient HVAC system. I became LEAFless November 10, 2012

[Waidy's LEAF] [Waidy's LEAF]

The 3.3kW onboard charger allows 7.5 hours charge time from depletion. More info can be found at the Wiki Nissan_Leaf

Waidy in NYT

LEAF Seat Heater Installation Party hosted 14 LEAFs with 6 LEAFs L2 charging at 240V simultaneously.

My collection of EVSE conversion cables

BayLEAF club 1 year anniversary: 35 LEAFs, 45 members.


2012 Toyota RAV4 EV, The Panda

We took delivery of the 2012 Toyota Rav4-EV on Nov. 11, 2012. This is Candace's EV, name "Panda". Panda's battery pack is a 386V lithium ion battery pack comprising about 4,500 cells and rated at 41.8 kWh of usable energy at full charge.

The 2012 RAV4 EV has two charge modes: Standard and Extended. In standard mode, the high voltage battery charges only up to 35 kWh, and Extended mode allows the battery to charge to its full usable capacity of 41.8 kWh

Power output is 115kW (154hp) @2800rpm with Peak Torque of 273 lb-ft in sport mode and 218 lb-ft in normal mode. Maxium speed is 100 mph in sport mode and 85 mph in normal mode. The maxium power output is 129 kW. Panda has a 9.6kW onboard charger (240V 40Amp). The battery pack weights 840 lb (380 kg) and because is located in the lowest part of the vehicle, the lower center of gravity provides a very good handling.

[Candace's 2012 Rav4]

The amount of time to charge a fully discharged Rav-4EV in extended mode is 4.35 hours (41.8kWh/9.6kW); and in standard mode is 3.65 hours (35kWh/9.6kWh)

Both of the battery pack and drive train are designed and manufactured by Tesla Motors. Sadly, Toyota only plans to sell 2600 of these new Rav4-EV.

Personal upgrades:
  • Improves supplied Level 1 EVSE function by adding a versatile Level 1 and Level 2 auto-detect charging option which works on both 120V or 208/240V.
  • Added thermal protection management at the charge inlet. This upgrage will pause the charging session should the temperature at the inlet reaches 158 degree F; and resumes charging when it drops below 154 degree F.
  • [Candace's 2012 Rav4]
    Panda went to a good home December 8 after 77,268 fossil fuel free miles.

    Meet Dolphin

    Dolphin became Waidy's primary vehicle January 4, 2013
    [Waidy's 2012 Rav4] [Waidy's 2012 Rav4]

    Model S - Predelivery

    Here's a photo after my test drive:


    This is what I ordered:

    [Waidy's Model S]

    2012 Tesla Model S P85 - The White Star

    Our Tesla Model S was taken delivery on November 28, 2012. White Star has a 85kWh battery pack consits of over 7000 lithium-ion battery cells. The battery pack uses Panasonic 18650 cells with nickel-cobalt-aluminum cathodes. White Star is also installed with twin chargers, allowing for 80Amp@240V (19.2kW) charging. Power on White Star is 270kW (362 hp) @6000-9500 rpm with Torque of 325 lb-ft (440 N-m) @0-5800 rpm, 416 hp. high performance drive inverter, and delivers top Speed of 130 mph, 0-60 mph in 4.2 sec. Darren is the primary driver for the P85.

    Volts / Amps KiloWatts Miles/Hr of Charge
    110V / 12Amp 1.4 kW 5 Miles
    120V / 16Amp 1.92 kW 7 Miles
    240V / 32Amp 7.68 kW 28 Miles
    240V / 40Amp 9.6 kW 31 Miles
    240V / 80Amp 19.2 kW 62 Miles
    Supercharging @440V 225Amp 90 kW 300 Miles
    [Darrn and his White Star]

    [Candace+Darren with White Star]

    [White Star and us]

    400 miles trip in White Star, by Darren

    2014 Tesla Model S 85kWh - Tessousine

    Tessousine was taken delivery in Hong Kong on August 28, 2014. It is my sister Jeanne's first EV.

    It has a 85kWh battery pack, and Twin charger with 3-phase capability.

    [Jeanne and her Model S]

    2014 Tesla Model S 85kWh - PaulS

    My brother's son Paul took delivery of a 2014 Model S in Hong Kong on September 24, 2014.

    It has a 85kWh battery pack with 3-phase capability.

    [Paul's Model S]

    2015 Tesla Model S Duel Motor 85D - Cheung85D

    Our Tesla Model S 85 D - Duel Motor was taken delivery on September 30, 2015. Cheung85D 85kWh battery pack equiped with Sunroof

    [Hong Kong 85D Back]

    [Hong Kong 85D Front]

    2015 BMW i8 - MingI8

    My 1 year old grandson also drives a full electric BMW i8

    [MingMing i8 1]

    [MingMing i8 2]

    [MingMing i8 3]

    [MingMing i8 4]

    2017 Tesla Model 3 - Snoopy

    Our Tesla Model 3 was taken delivery on December 9, 2017. Snoopy has a 75kWh battery pack consists of 4416 of 21x70 type cells in group of 46 cells per brick distributed in 4 modules. Snoopy is equipped with 48Amp onboard charger, 3-phase, six pole, 192 kW (258 hp) internal permanent magnet rear motor with 317 lb-ft (430 N-m) achieving top speed of 140 mph, 5.1 sec. in 0-60mph.

    Snoopy's upgrade includes a long range battery pack, the Premium Package, 19" sport wheel, and Enhanced Autopilot

    Candace is the chief pilot, co-pilot is Landon.

    [Candace and Bunny with MingMing]

    2017 Tesla Model X P100DL - StormTrooper

    StormTrooper was added to our EV fleet Dec 17, 2017. This 6-seaters crossover SUV has 100kWh battery pack and 72 Amp on-board charger. The dual-motor, three phase, 4 pole induction motor accelerates 2.6 sec zero to 60 mph (faster than Ferrari), achieving top speed of 155 mph.

    The Model X attributed the ratings to safety-focused design, in addition to a low centre-of-gravity resulting from its battery pack, adding "More than just resulting in a 5-star rating. Data from NHTSA~s testing shows that Model X has the lowest probability of injury of any SUV it has ever tested.

    Options include 22" Carbon Turbine Wheels and enhanced Autopilot.

    Darren is the Emperor and Chief Commander of StormTrooper

    [StormTrooper WaLa]

    [StormTrooper Family]

    [StormTrooper Darren]

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